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Analysis and Improvement of Cross-Regional Cooperation for Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserves

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Frequency restoration reserves (FRRs) are currently procured and activated by individual transmission system operators (TSOs) in Japan. To enhance the efficiency of the balancing process, a balancing market will be established in 2021, with the introduction of cross-regional cooperation for an automatic FRR (aFRR) being discussed. The cross-regional aFRR cooperation will be conducted through the procedures of the imbalance netting and aFRR sharing. As for the imbalance netting, two methods - i.e., the ACE netting and aFRR demand (aFRR-d) netting - have been used in the US and Europe. This study examines the merits and demerits of these netting methods through time-domain simulation using a model comprising two Japanese TSOs’ control areas. Although the ACE netting is more effective in reducing frequency fluctuations, the reduction effect in aFRR activations is limited. In contrast, the aFRR-d netting can reduce aFRR activations more efficiently while the time required to restore the frequency can be prolonged. To utilize the merits and compensate for the demerits of the above two methods, this paper proposes a combination of these methods. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can reduce the frequency fluctuations as effectively as the ACE netting and can reduce the aFRR activations as effectively as the aFRR-d netting in comparison with the localized aFRR operation.

Author(s):

Keita Tokumitsu    
Central Research Institute of Electrical Power Industry
Japan

Hiroyuki Amano    
Central Research Institute of Electrical Power Industry
Japan

Kenichi Kawabe    
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Japan

Toshiya Nanahara    
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Japan

 

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